Black Market Dollar to Naira Rate Today, September 19, 2023 In Nigeria

Black Market Dollar to Naira Rate Today, September 19, 2023 In Nigeria
Black Market Dollar to Naira Rate Today, September 19, 2023 In Nigeria

The black market exchange rate between the US Dollar and the Nigerian Naira has seen quite some fluctuations over the past few years. With Nigeria being heavily reliant on imports paid for in US Dollars, the exchange rate has a significant impact on the economy and lives of everyday Nigerians. In this article, we'll take a deep dive into the current black market exchange rate, the factors influencing it, historical trends and projections for the future.

Current Exchange Rate

According to data compiled from various black market traders and website trackers, the current parallel market exchange rate for the Dollar to Naira stands at: 


– Buying rate: ₦970

– Selling rate: ₦960


This means one US Dollar is exchanged for 970 Naira when buying, and 960 Naira when selling. The spread indicates the profit margin for traders in the unofficial currency market.

Comparing this to the previous trading day, the exchange rate remains largely unchanged, with a minor 0.5% appreciation in the Naira value against the Dollar for buying. However, the official CBN rate still remains significantly lower at around ₦430.

Factors Influencing the Black Market Rate

Several macroeconomic factors impact the supply and demand dynamics for US Dollars, which ultimately determines the black market exchange rate. These include:

– Crude Oil Prices: Nigeria earns over 90% of its foreign exchange from oil exports. Higher crude prices mean more Dollar inflows into the economy. Lower oil prices have the opposite effect.

– Foreign Reserves: Nigeria's foreign reserves have been under pressure from lower oil earnings and higher Dollar demand. Lower reserves mean the Central Bank cannot meet FX demands, pushing people to the black market.

– Inflation and Interest Rates: High inflation and real interest rates in Nigeria compared to the US increase demand for Dollars as a store of value. This puts downward pressure on the Naira.

– Import Dependency: Nigeria relies heavily on imports paid for in Dollars. With weak industrialization, demand for Dollars keeps rising.

– Capital Controls: CBN policies around forex access and convertibility impact supply. Tighter controls push demand to the black market.

– Security and Economic Uncertainty: In times of political instability or global financial crises, the Dollar is seen as a safe haven, increasing demand and weakening the Naira.

– Currency Speculation: Forward trading of the Naira by speculators during periods of volatility increases demand and supply imbalances. 

Historical Analysis

The Naira has experienced significant depreciation against the Dollar in the black market over the last four decades. Some key trends include:

– The Naira exchanged around ₦1 to $1 during the early 1980s prior to the IMF structural adjustment program and introduction of the Second-tier Foreign Exchange Market (SFEM). 

– By 1986, the exchange rate had dropped to around ₦4.5 to $1 at the official market while the parallel rate was ₦9 to $1.

– In 1994, the black market rate had further declined to ₦85 to $1 compared to the official rate of ₦22.

– Between 2002-2005, the Naira stabilized around ₦120 to $1 due to rising oil prices and economic stability under the Obasanjo administration. 

– However, as oil prices crashed during the 2008 global financial crisis, the exchange rate depreciated sharply to around ₦180 to $1.

– 2016 saw another round of heavy depreciation as oil prices slumped again, with the black market rate going past ₦400 briefly before stabilizing around ₦360.

– In 2020, multiple devaluations of the Naira and reduced CBN intervention due to Dollar shortages saw the black market rate cross ₦500.

– As of September 2022, the exchange rate stands around ₦660, though still significantly below the official market rate.

Naira Value Projections

Based on current economic conditions and policy direction, analysts expect the Naira to remain under pressure over the next 12-18 months. Some projections include:

– With Nigeria spending over 95% of its Dollar earnings on imports, the demand-supply imbalance is likely to persist, unless production and exports rise significantly. This points to further depreciation risk.

– However, the current account deficit has been narrowing to improved oil exports in 2022. Sustained higher oil prices will strengthen the Naira over the medium term.

– Interest rate hikes by the CBN also help manage inflation and protect the Naira value. But needs to be supported by fiscal reforms.

– IMF projections indicate the Naira is likely overvalued by over 20% at the official rate. This creates strong incentives for round-tripping across the different forex windows.

– If the CBN can unify the multiple exchange rate regime into a uniform market-reflective rate, it can temper demand pressures. But politically challenging. 

– With elections upcoming in 2023, the CBN may maintain the status quo on forex policies leading to persistent black market volatility.

– Overall projections point to gradual Naira depreciation to around ₦700 to ₦750/$1 over the next year, barring any shocks or policy shifts.

Major Drivers of the Future Exchange Rate

Looking ahead, some of the major factors likely to shape Dollar-Naira dynamics include:

1. Global crude oil prices: With oil exports accounting for over 90% of forex earnings, the trajectory of oil prices will remain the biggest factor determining Naira valuation. Significant volatility in either direction can disrupt monetary policy and exchange rate stability.

2. Foreign exchange reserves: Nigeria's reserves have been on a decline in recent years as CBN has had to provide forex liquidity to stabilize the Naira. Rebuilding reserves will require boosting exports and FDIs. However, reserves remain vulnerable to oil price shocks. 

3. Monetary policy: The CBN has to continually balance growth, inflation and exchange rate stability through its policies. But high inflation and weak transmission of policy rates make the job harder. Poor sequencing and timing of interest rate moves, credit controls etc. can easily backfire.

4. Import dependency: Nigeria cannot have a stable Naira without reducing its propensity to import even essential goods and commodities. Policies aimed at substituting imports with local production will need to be priority.

5. Capital controls: While some capital controls are justified to prevent forex round-tripping and hoarding, over-regulation risks currencies moving offshore and creating liquidity issues onshore. Gradual easing based on economic strength has to be calibrated.

6. Portfolio flows: Foreign portfolio flows into Nigeria's relatively higher-yielding assets like bonds and equities play a major role in forex liquidity. However, risk perceptions about Nigeria will determine if these inflows continue. 

7. Political stability: As the 2023 elections approach, ensuring political cohesion, continuity in reforms, addressing security risks and social divisions will be key to maintaining investor confidence and economic stability.

In summary, Nigeria's complex economic fundamentals and structurally high import dependence make predicting the Naira's future value against the Dollar challenging. While nominal depreciation looks likely as the norm, effective stability can be achieved through counterbalancing policies targeted at exports, capital flows, reserves and inflation targeting. The CBN has its work cut out.

Conclusion on Dollar To Naira Black Market Rate

The US Dollar holds a critical role as Nigeria's main medium of forex earnings and payments for imports. The Naira-Dollar exchange rate, especially on the black market, directly affects the economy and welfare of Nigerians. After many turbulent decades, stabilizing the exchange rate by addressing the deep-rooted problems of economic structure, production and policy coherence remains a key priority.

With oil revenues likely remaining volatile, building resilience by diversifying Nigeria's export base is no longer an option but an urgent necessity. Absent these reforms, temporary improvements in the exchange rate will prove transitory. The long-run value of the Naira lies not in short-term monetary manoeuvres but in deep-seated reforms to make Nigeria competitive globally.